Cobalamin may have a role in the prevention of disorders of brain development … Methyl B12 is needed as a co-factor to convert homocysteine back into methionine. Vitamin supplementation in disease prevention. Some experts claim that vitamin B12 injections can help with energy levels, brain function and weight loss. An estimated 6% of people in the US and UK aged 60 or older have vitamin B12 deficiency, while about 20% have low to normal or borderline deficient levels (29). Vitamin B12 helps a great deal in the proper functioning of your nervous system and adequate production of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) and DNA. More research is needed to make sound conclusions on the effect of vitamin B12 supplements on memory and cognitive function. Mayo Clinic does not endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Accessed Aug. 23, 2017. Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. The myelin sheath is required for fast and effective nerve-impulse transmission. Though vitamin B12 supplements may help improve mood and depression in people with a deficiency, research does not currently suggest that they have the same effect in those with normal B12 levels. There are nine water-soluble vitamins in the human diet. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. The higher the energy, the easier it is to maintain longer intercourse. All rights reserved. Fairfield KM. Here are the top 12…. All B vitamins play an important role in your body’s energy production, though they don’t necessarily provide energy themselves (17). Here are the 8 most common signs of vitamin and mineral deficiencies…. Because vitamin B12 is also important for the production of red blood cells, a severe deficiency can lead to a condition called pernicious anemia, which can lower energy levels. While the recommended daily amount of vitamin B-12 for adults is 2.4 micrograms, you can safely take higher doses. Adequate vitamin B12 levels are crucial to a healthy pregnancy. Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics. Vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in one of two ways. Your metabolism wouldn't run smoothly without it. Schrier SL. Vitamin B12 can decrease blood homocysteine, a type of amino acid that is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. However, older adults, vegetarians and people who have conditions that affect their ability to absorb vitamin B-12 from foods might benefit from the use of oral supplements. Research on the use of vitamin B-12 for specific activities and conditions shows: Most people get enough vitamin B-12 from a balanced diet. Happiness And Health. Even though some plant-based milks or grains may have been fortified with vitamin B12, vegan diets are often limited in this vitamin, putting people at risk of deficiency. For this reason, Vitamin B12 is irreplaceable in the human diet. Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in helping your body produce red blood cells. Appropriate vitamin B12 levels are key to a healthy pregnancy. Getting enough vitamin B12 through your diet is crucial. Healthy red blood cells are small and round, whereas they become larger and typically oval in cases of vitamin B12 deficiency. This type of B12 works well to reduce levels of homocysteine, an amino acid that at high levels increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. The foods you eat play a big role in your overall health. Vitamin B12 is involved in red blood cell formation. Food sources of vitamin B-12 include poultry, meat, fish and dairy products. Risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency include a decreased ability to absorb this vitamin due to low hydrochloric acid secretion, certain medications or gastrointestinal disease and surgeries. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that you must obtain through diet or supplements. Your daily diet should include 1.3 milligrams of vitamin B-6. Osteoblasts require an optimal level of Vitamin B12 for proper functioning. In fact, low vitamin B12 levels can cause various dermatologic symptoms, including hyperpigmentation, nail discoloration, hair changes, vitiligo (the loss of skin color in patches) and angular stomatitis (inflamed and cracked mouth corners) (24, 25). Vitamin B12 is essential for healthy skin, hair and nails because it plays a major part in cell reproduction. Maintaining adequate levels of vitamin B12 decreases homocysteine levels in your blood. Bones with decreased mineral density can become delicate and fragile over time, leading to an increased risk of osteoporosis. Vitamin B12 is a powerhouse. High blood levels of the common amino acid homocysteine have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Vitamin B12 is an important water-soluble vitamin, and deficiency is common. Methylcobalamin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Vitamin B12 has many roles in your body. Vitamin B12 is involved in energy production in your body. This article examines each in detail, letting you know the best sources and how much you need. Tuna, salmon, poultry, beef, potatoes, spinach, bananas and fortified breakfast cereals are all good sources. On the other hand, if you’re significantly deficient in vitamin B12, taking a supplement or increasing your intake will likely improve your energy level (19). Research suggests that vitamin B12 boosts skin health by reducing redness, dryness, inflammation and acne blemishes — and can be applied to the skin for psoriasis and eczema. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a number of important roles in the human body. The “methyl” portion is extra carbon and hydrogen. Vitamin B-12 is also added to some foods and is available as an oral supplement. This content does not have an English version. B-Complex Vitamins: Benefits, Side Effects and Dosage, The Water-Soluble Vitamins: C and B Complex, Nutrition: Great Foods for Getting Vitamins A to K in Your Diet, Top 12 Foods That Are High in Vitamin B12, 9 Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency, 8 Common Signs You’re Deficient in Vitamins, 7 Nutrient Deficiencies That Are Incredibly Common, 7 Nutrients That You Can’t Get from Plants, People with gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn’s disease or celiac disease, Those who have had gastrointestinal surgeries, such as bariatric surgery or bowel resection surgery, Those who take metformin for blood sugar control, Those taking proton pump inhibitors for chronic heartburn. Causes and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. However, this vitamin plays a vital role in synthesizing and metabolizing serotonin, a chemical responsible for regulating mood. One study in people with early-stage dementia showed that a combination of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplements slowed mental decline (15). Currently, there is no scientific evidence to suggest that vitamin B12 supplements can boost energy in those with sufficient levels of this vitamin (18). However, if you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, you might be prone to deficiency because plant foods don't contain vitamin B-12. The group receiving these supplements for seven years had fewer cases of macular degeneration, compared to the placebo group. The recommended daily amount of vitamin B-12 for adults is 2.4 micrograms. While vitamin B12 supplements are considered safe and non-toxic, taking large doses of around 1,000 milligrams can still be problematic. A study involving 5,000 women aged 40 or older concluded that supplementing with vitamin B12, along with folic acid and vitamin B6, may reduce this risk (11). Vitamin B12 can restore the body’s energy. It may be given to you for other reasons. There are four fat-soluble vitamins in the human diet: A, D, E and K. This guide examines their health benefits, functions and main dietary sources. Cyanocobalamin. Accessed Aug. 23, 2017. This article reviews 7 nutrients commonly lacking in…. It is one of eight B vitamins.It is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. Left untreated, a vitamin B-12 deficiency can lead to anemia, fatigue, muscle weakness, intestinal problems, nerve damage and mood disturbances. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Vitamin B12. The presence of folic acid (B9), vitamin B12, vitamin D and vitamin K in the body is very vital for the healthy functioning of the platelets as well as the overall body. This can cause symptoms like fatigue and weakness. Learn how to get the vitamins you need — including vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and K — in your…, Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that your body can’t make on its own, so you need to get it from your diet or supplements. Micromedex 2.0 Healthcare Series. If recently, you feel constantly low in energy level, then it can be that you are … Accessed Aug. 23, 2017. Once thought of as a single element, scientists now know that vitamin B is actually a complex assortment of nutrients. If you have normal B12 values, but high homocysteine levels, this may point to a deficiency or problem utilizing methyl B12. But, when a person doesn’t have the vigor to do it, it could be due to the lack of B12. There are four basic types of vitamin B12. But since it’s mainly consumed through meat and fish, people on plant-based or vegan diets might want to consider a vitamin B12 supplement, as well as consuming foods fortified with vitamin B12. Elevated homocysteine levels have been associated with an increased risk of age-related macular degeneration (9, 10). Another study found that even vitamin B12 levels on the low side of normal can contribute to poor memory performance. Supplementing with vitamin B12 has been shown to improve dermatologic symptoms in people with B12 deficiency (26, 27). Vitamin B12 does a lot of things for your body. A diet lacking in nutrients may cause a variety of unpleasant symptoms. Therefore, vitamin B12 deficiency may lead to decreased serotonin production, which may cause a depressed mood. Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis [ 1-5 ]. Either your diet lacks adequate amounts of it or your body is unable to fully absorb it from the food you eat. Vitamin B 12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body. Here are 7 incredibly common nutrient deficiencies. Vitamin B12 supplements may help improve mood in people with an existing deficiency. Additionally, high vitamin B12 levels have been linked to better treatment outcomes and an increased probability of recovery from major depressive disorder (MDD) (14). Another study discovered that vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with twice the risk of severe depression (13). A few nutrients are either difficult or impossible to get in adequate amounts from plant foods. One study in more than 2,500 adults showed that people with a vitamin B12 deficiency also had lower than normal bone mineral density (5). Supports Healthy Hair, Skin and Nails. Sardines. Vitamin B12 is vital for life itself as it helps make deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). But beyond that, vitamin B12 is known to help with our nervous system, blood-cell formation, digestion, and brain function, and helps prevent anemia and enhance our moods (so it also helps stave off depression, she noted). Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It also avoids miscarriage and premature birth. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. In fact, one of the most common early signs of vitamin B12 deficiency is fatigue or lack of energy. Low blood levels of this vitamin have been associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis. B-12 helps regulate digestion, absorption, respiration, circulation and body temperature, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center, or UMMC 1. Methylcobalamin is sometimes used in people with pernicious anemia, diabetes, and other conditions. Vitamin B-12 is also added to some foods and is available as an oral supplement. Vitamin B12 is required to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Sardines are small, soft-boned saltwater fish. One study found that women with vitamin B12 levels lower than 250 mg/dL were three times more likely to give birth to a child with birth defects, compared to those with adequate levels (4). Types of vitamin B12. The vitamin may play a role in preventing brain atrophy, which is the loss of neurons in the brain and often associated with memory loss or dementia. Vitamin B12 is needed for the production of serotonin, a chemical responsible for regulating mood. When we look at chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes from a Functional Medicine perspective, we look at the imbalance that has been created within the body as a result of unhealthy lifestyle choices and ears of abuse. It is vital for diabetics to get enough of the right nutrients, exercise and other lifestyle habits as a first step to reverse their chroni… However, research does not currently support the claim that vitamin B12 reduces this risk. Studies show that a fetus’s brain and nervous system require sufficient B12 levels from the mother to develop properly. As a result, supplementing with this vitamin may improve memory, even in the absence of a clinically diagnosed deficiency (16). Vitamin D and vitamin B12 are two of the most potent vitamins “as defined by the amount of vitamin required to elicit a biological response” [5]. Therefore, further research is needed to understand the relationship between vitamin B12 and heart health. Methionine synthase catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine [ 5, 6 ]. Vitamin B12 may play a vital role in your bone health. Older adults and people with digestive tract conditions that affect absorption of nutrients also are susceptible to vitamin B-12 deficiency. Talk with the doctor. Healthy vitamin B12 levels are important for your hair, skin and nails. Vitamin B-12 is necessary for several bodily processes, including nerve function and the production of DNA and red blood cells.. A person whose vitamin B-12 … While the benefits of Vitamin B12 are complex and wide-ranging, its foremost roles are in … This article reviews the science. Methylcobalamin is the most active form of B12 in the body and is easily absorbed. But B12 … This content does not have an Arabic version. High levels of homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. One study in people with depression and low vitamin B12 levels found that those who received both antidepressants and vitamin B12 were more likely to show improved depressive symptoms, compared to those treated with antidepressants alone (12). Maintaining adequate vitamin B12 levels may support your bone health. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. Vitamin B12 is crucial for the synthesis and maintenance of myelin sheaths, the covering that protects the nerves of the central and the peripheral nervous system. Accessed Aug. 23, 2017. Other studies have also shown a link between low vitamin B12 levels and poor bone health and osteoporosis, especially in women (6, 7, 8). Another good way to assess one’s true B12 status is to measure total homocysteine (tHcy). © 1998-2021 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). For most adults, the recommended daily intake (RDI) is 2.4 mcg, though it’s higher for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding (1). It’s found naturally in animal products, but also added to certain foods and available as an oral supplement or injection. Vitamin B-12's primary function is to aid in metabolism, the process by which your body creates and uses energy. For women with a vitamin B12 deficiency and levels below 150 mg/dL the risk was five times higher, compared to women with levels above 400 mg/dL (4). Accessed Aug. 23, 2017. The recommended daily allowance of vitamin B12 for adults isn’t much — 2.4 mcg, according to the NIH. Office of Dietary Supplements. It’s responsible for many bodily functions and may benefit your health in various ways, such as by preventing major birth defects, supporting bone health, improving mood and maintaining healthy skin and hair. If your body has difficulty absorbing vitamin B12, your doctor may recommend intramuscular injections of B12 to increase your levels. Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. Vitamin B12 is required by the body in small amounts, and most people end up fulfilling the requirement by consuming foods which have a small amount of the vitamin. They’re important for the prevention of brain and spinal cord birth defects. Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin that plays essential roles in red blood cell formation, cell metabolism, nerve function and the production of DNA.Food sources of vitamin B-12 include poultry, meat, fish and dairy products. All rights reserved. Alzheimer’s Disease. Maintaining adequate levels of vitamin B12 may help prevent the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Vitamin B12 levels and bone mineral density are interlinked. Vegans are also at risk since B12 is only found in animal products. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. Vitamin B12 may benefit your body in impressive ways, such as by boosting your energy, improving your memory and helping prevent heart disease. Vitamin B-12 supplements also are recommended for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding exclusively and follow vegetarian or vegan diets. Vitamin B12 may help prevent brain atrophy and memory loss. Vitamin B12 is only found naturally in animal products. Vitamin B12 deficiency can most often be prevented or resolved with oral or intramuscular injections. Ultimately, further studies are needed to fully understand vitamin B12’s role in promoting vision health and preventing macular degeneration. Vitamin B12 is important for the brain and nerves, and for the production of red blood cells. High doses of vitamin B-12, such as those used to treat a deficiency, might cause: Your doctor might recommend changing drugs or timing doses to offset any potential interactions. Reduced level of vitamin B12 increases the risk of osteoporosis. It helps make DNA, nerve and blood cells, and is crucial for a healthy brain and immune system. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with memory loss, especially in older adults. The risk of developing any form of the condition was 34% lower, while it was 41% lower for more severe types (11). Due to this larger and irregular shape, the red blood cells are unable to move from the bone marrow into the bloodstream at an appropriate rate, causing megaloblastic anemia (2). Vitamin B12 overdose is very unlikely to happen because vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning the body has the ability to flush out any excess through urine that it doesn’t need. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that keeps your nerves and red blood cells healthy. Two steps are required for the body to absorb vitamin B12 from food. Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) oral. When vitamin B12 levels are too low, the production of red blood cells is altered, causing megaloblastic anemia. The B-complex vitamins include B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is important for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis. Further, knowing what vitamins are good for low platelet count help in diet and treatment plan, as appropriate. Vitamin B12 functions as a cofactor for methionine synthase and L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Vitamin B-12 injections or nasal spray might be prescribed to treat vitamin B-12 deficiency. Those at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency include (1): In many older adults, the secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach is reduced, causing a reduction in the absorption of vitamin B12. And they are both innocuous at fairly high doses, up to 40,000 IU/day for vitamin D [3] and up to 5.0 mg/day for B12 (5,000 mcg). Vitamin B12 is an important member of the B vitamin family. Taking a supplement may improve your energy level, but only if you’re deficient in this vitamin. Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin that plays essential roles in red blood cell formation, cell metabolism, nerve function and the production of DNA. Furthermore, maternal vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to premature birth or miscarriage (3). However, there is currently no scientific evidence to confirm that vitamin B12 supplements are effective in this regard (23). More research is needed to conclude if supplementing with this vitamin can improve memory in those without a deficiency. The B vitamins are famous for boosting energy and benefiting the metabolism. However, if you struggle to obtain enough or have a condition that affects absorption, supplements are a simple way to increase your B12 intake. It is involved in many vital processes in the body, including: Producing red blood cells Keeping the nervous system healthy Here are 9 signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. If you eat a healthy, varied diet, preventing a vitamin B12 deficiency should be easy. Here are 9 health benefits of vitamin B12, all based on science. This may help prevent the development of age-related macular degeneration. Studies have shown that vitamin B12 helps decrease homocysteine levels, which may reduce your risk of heart disease (20, 21, 22). However, if you think that you might be at risk, speak to your doctor. When you’re anemic, your body doesn’t have enough red blood cells to transport oxygen to your vital organs. Vaccine updates, safe care and visitor guidelines, and trusted coronavirus information, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter, New Year Special -  40% off – Mayo Clinic Diet Online, Advertising and sponsorship opportunities. They’re usually sold canned in water, oil, or … It helps make your DNA and your red blood cells, for example. Macular degeneration is an eye disease that mainly affects your central vision. The effect of vitamin B12 on mood is not yet fully understood. It supports the normal function of your nerve cells and is needed for red blood cell formation and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 – also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin, naturally found in some foods, added to others and synthesised by bacteria in the small intestine. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the beginning stages of pregnancy may increase the risk of birth defects, such as neural tube defects. Stamina and energy are critical factors for better sex life. Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is an essential vitamin that your body needs but cannot produce. When taken at appropriate doses, vitamin B-12 supplements are generally considered safe. Your body absorbs only as much as it needs, and any excess passes through your urine. It is responsible for the smooth functioning of several critical body processes. Uses of Vitamin B12-Folic Acid: It is used to help growth and good health. The crux of chronic disease reversal rests on correcting this imbalance.

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